|Patera depicting Cybele and Attis, 4th century CE, source: ancientrome.ru|
This much I already knew when I came across the following passage from books 8-9 in Apuleius’ The Golden Ass, a humorous and very readable novel written in the 2nd century CE:
“… Fortune … once again turned her blind eyes on me and … produced a buyer who could not have suited my unhappy circumstances more perfectly [the narrator is a man named Lucius who has, through his own folly, been turned into an ass in a bungled attempt to practice magic]. Let me describe him: he was a real old queen, bald apart from a few grizzled ringlets, one of your street-corner scum, one of those [galli] who carry the Syrian Goddess [Cybele] around our towns to the sound of cymbals and castanets and make her beg for her living. He was keen to buy me … [after growing weary at being made the butt of jokes by the auctioneer, the priest, named Philebus, while] putting on a great show of indignation … retorted: 'You zombie, you stuffed dummy, damn you and your auctioneer's blether, may the almighty mother of all, she of Syria, and holy Sabadius and Bellona and the Idaean Mother and queen Venus with her Adonis strike you blind for the coarse buffoonery I've had to take from you. You bloody fool, do you think I can entrust the Goddess to an unruly beast who might suddenly upset the divine image and throw it off; leaving its unfortunate guardian to run about with her hair all over the place looking for a doctor for her Goddess lying on the ground?' … [Philebus purchases Lucius the ass, so to carry the statute of Cybele during their processions, and] taking delivery of this new member of the family he led me off home, where as soon as he got indoors he called out: 'Look, girls, at the pretty little slave I've bought and brought home for you.' But these 'girls' were a troupe of queens, who at once appeared jumping for joy and squealing untunefully in mincing effeminate tones, in the belief that it really was a human slave that had been brought to serve them. When they saw that this was not a case of a hind substituting for a maiden but an ass taking the place of a man, they began to sneer and mock their chief; saying that this wasn't a servant he'd brought but a husband for himself.' And listen,' they said. 'You're not to gobble up this nice little nestling all on your own – we're your little dovvies too, and you must let us have a share sometimes.' Exchanging badinage of this sort they tied me up next to the manger. They also had in the house a beefy young man, an accomplished piper, whom they had bought in the market from the proceeds of their street collections. Out of doors he tagged along playing his instrument when they carried the Goddess around, at home he was toyboy in ordinary to the whole establishment. As soon as he saw me joining the household, without waiting for orders he served me out a generous ration of food and welcomed me joyfully. 'At last,' he said, 'here's somebody to spell me in my loathsome duties. Long life to you! May you please our masters and bring relief to my exhausted loins!' When I heard this I began to picture to myself the ordeals that lay ahead of me.
Next day they all put on tunics of various hues and 'beautified' themselves by smearing coloured gunge on their faces and applying eye-shadow. Then they set forth, dressed in turbans and robes, some saffron-coloured, some of linen and some of gauze; some had white tunics embroidered with a pattern of purple stripes and girded at the waist; and on their feet were yellow slippers. The Goddess, draped in silk, they placed on my back, and baring their arms to the shoulder and brandishing huge swords and axes, they capered about with ecstatic cries, while the sound of the pipes goaded their dancing to frenzy. After calling at a number of small houses they arrived at a rich man's country estate. The moment they entered the gates there was bedlam; they rushed about like fanatics, howling discordantly, twisting their necks sinuously back and forth with lowered heads, and letting their long hair fly around in circles, sometimes attacking their own flesh with their teeth, and finally gashing their arms with the weapons they carried. In the middle of all this, one of them was inspired to fresh excesses of frenzy; he began to gasp and draw deep laboured breaths, feigning madness like one divinely possessed – as if the presence of a God sickened and enfeebled men instead of making them better!
Tomb portrait of a gallus, 2nd century CE
Anyway, let me tell you how heavenly Providence rewarded him. Holding forth like some prophet he embarked on a cock-and-bull story about some sacrilegious act he accused himself of having committed, and condemned himself to undergo the just punishment for his crime at his own hands. So, seizing a whip such as these effeminates always carry about with them, its lashes made of twisted wool ending in long tassels thickly studded with sheep's knuckle-bones, he laid into himself with these knotted thongs, standing the pain of the blows with extraordinary hardihood. What with the sword-cuts and the flogging, the ground was awash with the contaminated blood of these creatures. All this worried me a good deal: seeing all these wounds and gore all over the place I was afraid that, just as some men drink asses' milk, this foreign Goddess might conceive an appetite for asses' blood. Finally, however, exhausted or sated with lacerating themselves, they gave over the carnage, and started to stowaway in the roomy folds of their robes the coppers, indeed the silver money, that people crowded round to bestow on them – and not only money but jars of wine and milk and cheeses and a quantity of corn and wheat; and some presented the bearer of the Goddess with barley. They greedily raked in all this stuff, crammed it into the sacks that they had ready for these acquisitions, and loaded it on my back, so that I was carrying a double load, a walking barn and temple combined.
In this way they roved about plundering the whole countryside. In one village they enjoyed a particularly lavish haul and decided to celebrate with a banquet. As the price for a fake oracle they got a fat ram from one of the farmers, which they said was to be sacrificed to appease the hungry Goddess. Having made all the arrangements for dinner they went off to the baths, whence having bathed they brought back with them to share their dinner a robust young peasant, finely equipped in loin and groin. Dinner was hardly begun and they had scarcely started on the hors-d'oeuvre when the filthy scum became inflamed by their unspeakable lusts to outrageous lengths of unnatural depravity. The young man was stripped and laid on his back, and crowding round him they made repeated demands on his services with their loathsome mouths. Finally I couldn't stand the sight and tried to shout 'Romans, to the rescue!'; but the other letters and syllables failed me and all that came out was an 'O' – a good loud one, creditable to an ass, but the timing was unfortunate. It so happened that some young men from the next village were looking for an ass that had been stolen that night and were conducting a thorough search of all the lodging-houses. Hearing me braying inside and believing that their quarry was hidden away there, they burst in unexpectedly in a body to reclaim their property then and there, and caught our friends red-handed at their vile obscenities. They immediately called all the neighbours to witness this shocking scene, ironically praising the priests for their spotless virtue.
Demoralized by this scandal, news of which soon spread and naturally got them loathed and detested by one and all, they packed up everything and left the place surreptitiously at about midnight.”
|Male lovers embrace at Roma Euro Pride|
Thus Apuleius’ mockery of the catamite priests of Cybele is partly explained by the macho and patriarchal attitudes prevalent throughout the Roman era. Let us not condemn ancient Roman society for bigotry** too swiftly though – it was a different and more violent age, where dominant, even aggressive, masculinity could ensure survival, freedom, prosperity and dignity for yourself, your family, your tribe, your people. As Roman ideas about masculinity appear to have a relationship to notions of what constitutes femininity, another related point to make about the Roman era is that it was a time when neither reliable methods of contraception nor paternity tests existed, which had consequences for women – weighed down by the repeated demands of motherhood, they often necessarily became submissive to and reliant on their menfolk to protect them and their children, and their chastity thereby became their greatest virtue (in the eyes of men) as it was the sole safeguard of rightful paternity. Which brings me to another point about the galli described above. While we have established that ancient Rome was no rainbow coloured paradise, nor was it the hell that it has been for many LGBT people in Western nations until the last few decades. It may be that Apuleius was not really homophobic so much as sexist. Perhaps what is shocking about the behaviour of his galli is not so much that they so enthusiastically enjoy receptive homosexual sex, for ancient Roman men must have frequently encountered this during their mix-gendered sexual adventures. What may be happening is that as the galli were quasi-women they were expected to abide by the norms that applied to Roman women, ie, chastity. Just as Apuleius elsewhere mocks “leather skinned whores” in The Golden Ass, perhaps his mocking treatment of these no longer youthful but horny “women” is just as we should expect.
|A hijra, sourced from tumblr.com/tagged/hijra|
Finally, if we really want to understand the galli we can perhaps look beyond the few pages of material we have inherited from ancient Rome and study the hijras of contemporary India – cross dressing men, some of whom are castrated, known for performing religious ceremonies associated with fertility, fortune telling, begging and sex work. Despite their low social status and almost certainly like the galli of times past, it appears their favour is sought to bring good luck and fertility; likewise, their curse is feared lest it bring bad luck and infertility, and therein lies a measure of respect.
Let us give the last word on the Magna Mater and her galli to Lucretius, in his vivid account from the 1st century BCE:
“This is she who was hymned by learned Greek poets of old. They pictured her a Goddess, driving a chariot drawn by a yoke of lions. By this they signified that the whole mighty mass hangs in airy space: for earth cannot rest on earth. They harnessed wild beasts, because the fiercest of children cannot but be softened and subdued by the duty owed to parents. Upon her head they set a battlemented crown, because earth in select spots is fortified and bears the weight of cities. Decked with this emblem even now the image of the Holy Mother, Cybele, is borne about the world in solemn state. Various nations hail her with time-honored ceremony as the mother from Mount Ida [in central Turkey, from where the Cybele cult originated]. To bear her company they appoint a Phrygian retinue, because they claim that crops were first created within the bounds of Phrygia [in central Turkey] and spread from there throughout the earth. They give her eunuchs as attendant priests, to signify that those who have defied their mother's will and shown ingratitude to their parents must be counted unworthy to bring forth living children into the sunlit world. A thunder of drums attends her, tight-stretched and pounded by palms, and a clash of hollow cymbals; hoarse-throated horns bray their deep warning, and the hollow pipe thrills every heart with Phrygian strains. Weapons are carried before her, symbolic of rabid frenzy, to chasten the thankless and profane hearts of the rabble with dread of her divinity. So, when first she is escorted into some great city and mutely enriches mortals with some wordless benediction, they strew her path all along the route with a lavish largesse of copper and silver and shadow the mother and her retinue with a snow of roses. Next an armed band, whom the Greeks call curetes [or korybantes], join in rhythmic dances, merry with blood and nodding their heads to set their terrifying crests aflutter, whenever they joust together among the Phrygian bands [Lucretius, On the Nature of the Universe, book 2]”.
For more on the galli see Mary Beard et al, Religions of Rome: Volume 2: A Sourcebook at 8.7 (page 209 ff).
* For a well written article on the subject of homosexuality in ancient Rome see M Milligan, Roman Same-Sex, Slaves and Lex Scantinia, heritagedaily.com (May, 2012).
** Note: as a contemporary Pagan I do not feel bound to follow ancient custom where it is unethical, unjust or nonsensical within the context of our own times. Thus, as I assert my allegiance to feminism so do I abhor homophobia. I agree with the views expressed by M. Horatius Piscinus in this post on same sex marriage.
|As close as it gets to a contemporary incarnation of a gallus? A transexual |
fortune teller, image sourced from worldisround.com
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